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VCE Physical Education: Unit 1: AOS 2 - Cardiorespiratory System

Outcomes

Area of Study 2 How does the cardiorespiratory system function at rest and during physical activity?

In this area of study students examine the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the human body and how the heart, blood vessels and lungs function at rest and during physical activity. Through practical activities students explore the structure and function of the cardiorespiratory system and their contributions and interactions during physical activity, sport and exercise. Enablers and barriers to the capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are investigated from a sociocultural, environmental and physical perspective. Students explore the ethical and performance considerations of the use of a variety of legal and illegal practices and substances specific to each system. 

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit students should be able to collect and analyse information from, and participate in, a variety of practical activities to explain how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems function and the limiting conditions of each system, and discuss the ethical and performance implications of the use of practices and substances to enhance the performance of these two systems. To achieve this outcome the student will draw on key knowledge and key skills outlined in Area of Study 2.

Key knowledge

  • the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, including the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels and blood flow around the body at rest and during exercise
  • components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma and their function at rest and during exercise
  • the role of the cardiovascular system in thermoregulation: homeostasis, hyperthermia and hypothermia
  • vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the blood vessels to regulate blood distribution at rest and during exercise
  • the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output at rest and during submaximal and maximal exercise
  • the structure and function of the respiratory system, including the structure and function of the lungs, mechanics of breathing and gaseous exchange at the alveoli/capillary and the capillary/muscle interface
  • the interrelationship of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to transport oxygen around the body at rest and during exercise
  • physiological, social, cultural and environmental enablers and barriers of cardiovascular health (such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, high cholesterol levels, hypertension and stroke) and respiratory health (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • the role of physical activity, sport and exercise to enhance the capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems • actual and perceived benefits and potential harms to the athlete of legal and illegal substances and methods that enhance performance of the cardiorespiratory system, such as altitude training, erythropoietin (EPO), beta-blockers and blood doping
  • ethical and sociocultural considerations associated with the use of illegal practices associated with improving the function of the cardiorespiratory system.

Key skills

  • use and apply correct anatomical terminology to identify the structures and function of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
  • describe the role and function of blood components
  • examine the role of the cardiovascular system in thermoregulation
  • analyse the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output at rest and during submaximal and maximal exercise
  • describe the process of gaseous exchange
  • perform, measure and report on changes to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems at rest compared with exercise • assess enablers and barriers to cardiorespiratory health and investigate strategies to enhance the capacity and functioning of cardiorespiratory system
  • critically analyse the physiological effects of legal and illegal strategies that enhance the performance of the cardiorespiratory system on the individual • discuss the ethical, social and cultural considerations associated with the use of legal and illegal practices associated with improving the function of the cardiorespiratory system.